Category: blog

who makes fentanyl

Who Makes Fentanyl and How Do They Sleep at Night? A Look into the Industry

You’d have to be living under quite a heavy rock to have not heard of the Opiate Crisis in America. 

Over the past decade, overdoses from opiates have skyrocketed. Addiction rates are still on the rise, and the cost is nearly incalculable. 

But how did we get here? How is it possible that something like Fentanyl, 50 to 100 times more powerful than morphine, is available to the public? Who makes fentanyl, and who has the audacity to market it as medicine?

We’ve got the answer. Let’s take a look. 

What Is Fentanyl? 

Fentanyl is an opioid. It’s a painkiller, and a powerful one. Fentanyl tends to be used for post-surgical patients and those who have used powerful painkillers long-term and developed a tolerance. 

Unlike its cousin, morphine, Fentanyl doesn’t require the natural opium from the poppy plant. Rather, it’s produced in labs and is totally synthetic. This makes it highly versatile, since moving its molecules can make it more or less potent.

When used in hospitals, it’s regulated and relatively safe. 

However, fentanyl is popular among illegal drug labs because it is so easy to manufacture and manipulate. Because of this, it’s often used to cut other, more expensive drugs. 

This means outside hospitals, Fentanyl is widely available and easy to obtain, even on accident. In 2017, there were nearly 30,000 overdoses linked to Fentanyl in the United States. Compare that to less than 800 deaths only two decades prior. 

But who is making this stuff, and where are addicts getting it?

Who Makes Fentanyl?

The obvious answer here is that drug companies make Fentanyl. Just like any drug, it is manufactured to regulation and shipped to hospital pharmacies. 

Opioid addiction has been a problem in America for decades. But the issue with many opioids was that they were difficult to get without a prescription. That didn’t stop the problem, obviously. But the difficulty in getting Morphine or Oxycontin without a doctors note did present a problem. 

Fentanyl, though, is different. It’s easy to make in a lab, with just a little bit of know-how. 

Which brings us to the secondary, and more dangerous makers of Fentanyl. Illegal drug manufacturers. 

When illegal labs create fentanyl, they aren’t selling it as itself. Rather, they are using it to cut other drugs, like heroin or cocaine, or compounding it into tablet and pills and selling it as other drugs, like oxycodone.

The Hidden Danger of Fentanyl

Fentanyl can be a lifesaver for those with high levels of pain. And in a controlled environment overseen by medical professionals, most are able to take it safely. 

But when the answer to “who makes Fentanyl” is “illegal drug manufacturers”, the danger becomes quite apparent. People who are looking for a fix of heroin or cocaine may be given their drug cut with Fentanyl and overdose accidentally. The same is true of opioid addicts looking for Oxycodone. If the pills are fake and made with fentanyl, one pill may be enough to trigger an overdose. 

If you or someone you love is worried about the possibility of Fentanyl overdose or opioid addiction, give us a call today. We are here to help. 

drug and alcohol rehab

What to Expect: Guide to Drug and Alcohol Rehab

Did you know about 114 people die daily because of drugs, while about 6,748 get sent to emergency rooms for treatment?

This was an estimate raised by the Centers for Disease Control. It shows the severity of addiction and how it affects everyone.

If you or someone you know is down that path, don’t give up hope! The road to recovery is daunting, but it doesn’t mean you have to come in blind.

As you go for drug and alcohol rehab, here are some things that you may come across on your journey to sobriety:

1. Drug and Alcohol Rehab Can Be Scary and Unpredictable

When undergoing drug and alcohol rehabilitation, it can be scary and downright unpredictable. You may end up doubting yourself or wonder if your addiction is even severe when compared to others.

Oftentimes, you may feel shy and uncomfortable, especially during the first time. You may also feel embarrassed and ashamed. It will take time to ease in but everything will work out.

Do you feel like giving up? It may be because you feel that the program seems impossible to complete. You might feel like it won’t work.

It’s unpredictable but press on and push forward. You will get better. But if you are still uneasy about it, always remember you can still leave.

2. Detox and Withdrawal

One of the things you do in rehab is detoxification. Some rehab facilities have their own detox programs. A few rehab centers expect you to finish the detox process before stepping into their facilities.

A good reason behind this is due to how sustained alcohol or drug use can take a huge toll on both your physical and emotional health. You can find out more about how you can take on the detox process here.

3. Varying Facilities

Don’t expect every rehab facility to be the same. On one end, you have camp-type facilities designed to cater to teenagers. On the other, you have more luxurious facilities designed with a wealthy amount of amenities.

There are other facilities that hang between. They only give you enough to live comfortably.

It is true that the facilities you get to use will depend on how much you or your insurance plan are able to afford. However, it has little to do with how successful or effective the rehab program will be to keep you sober. Don’t look at the price tag; look at their track record in helping folks recover.

4. Education

Education is a core component for rehab and treatment programs, though this varies for each facility. Its aim is to help you look at your addiction in an honest and realistic approach. From there, you can work to change your attitude about your alcohol and drug use.

This also lets you understand the nature of your addiction. As well as help you look at the seriousness of the addiction that you have.

5. Therapy

One thing that you should know about what happens in rehab is that there are various kinds of therapy involved. Each facility would offer different ways to help you break away from your addiction.

The most common would involve group therapy and counseling. The 12-Step method is one of the most notable, though there are other forms of therapy that you can make use of. Some of these alternative forms of therapy include art, music, dance, neurofeedback, and so on.

Of course, they have an aftercare plan included in the program to prevent you from undergoing relapses and keep you sober.

We’re Here to Help You!

Going to drug and alcohol rehab can be a rather scary experience. However, we will be with you in every step of the way. If you wish to know more about what we treat and how we can help, feel free to contact us.

Spotting Rx Drug Abuse

“I found multiple bottles of pain killers with prescriptions from different doctors in the medicine cabinet.”

“My spouse is taking 2-3 times the recommended dosage of a prescription pain medicine.”

“There are unexplained ATM withdrawals from our bank account.”

“My spouse is suddenly having attendance problems at work/keeping a job. This was never a problem before.”

These are common warning signs of a prescription drug dependency/addiction. If you have noticed any of these signs with a spouse, adult child or anyone residing in your household, it may be time to address the issue. These warning signs can be accompanied by a withdrawal from family responsibilities, mood swings, hostility or a change in sleep patterns.

Start the process by creating a log or diary of what you know. When was the person initially prescribed
pain killers, anti-anxiety medications or sleep aids? Can you note specific instances of the warning signs since the person began taking the prescription? Has there been a steady increase in the number of instances?

What are the next steps? While being supportive, share your concerns with the individual. In many cases, the person will be in denial about the problem. The next step would be to speak to the doctor about the issue, if you can, given today’s privacy regulations. If the problem persists, it may be time to consider entering a treatment program, starting with a medical detox, followed by either residential or outpatient counseling.

Pathways 28-day and extended care treatment programs utilize proven, science-based methods to prescription drug dependencies and addictions. Contact us to learn more about these programs.

Xanax: Abusing Prescriptions

Despite the prevalence of attention given to abuse of prescription painkillers, one of the most commonly abused prescription drugs in the US is in fact Xanax and its generic form, alprazolam. From the class of benzodiazepine drugs, a grouping of controlled substances that also includes Valium and Klonopin, Xanax is a central nervous depressant meant to aid in the treatment of panic attacks as well as severe anxiety. The fast acting drug gives users a sense of calm and mild euphoria, however when use becomes extended over time, tolerance and abuse can quickly lead to dangerous physical and emotional dependencies. Xanax addiction can quickly spiral out of control for those afflicted and potentially cause severe health issues.

Symptoms of Xanax Abuse

Because of its classification as a depressant, the most common effect Xanax has on users is causing a sense of drowsiness. As a person takes more of the substance on a regular basis, tolerance for the drug builds. What began as mild drowsiness can evolve into constant state of lethargy where an individual begins shirking responsibilities, has difficultly with fine motor skills, and always seems to have their thoughts in a haze. The may seem confused, have a lot difficultly with short term memory, have trouble articulating thoughts, and may even have problems with their vision. Weight loss or a change in libido can also be symptoms occurring in conjunction with those mentioned that might further indicate the presence of a Xanax addiction.

Dangers of Xanax Addiction
As a drug that depresses the central nervous system, which also develops a tolerance in a user over time, the dangers of Xanax abuse are dramatic. A major issue with Xanax is its usage in conjunction with other substances, most notably alcohol. Since both are depressants, the simultaneous use of alcohol and Xanax carries the risk of experiencing fatal respiratory failure. Often, when someone abusing Xanax consumes alcohol, they do not consider the serious and immediate consequences of doing so because the usage of Xanax has become such a normalized behavior.

Xanax Withdrawal
Withdrawal symptoms from Xanax can cause intense discomfort, however they are very manageable with acceptance and a willingness to partake in betterment. Insomnia, headaches, nausea, chills, paranoia and anxiety all can accompany withdrawal from benzodiazepines. It is important to remember that for most, when under the supervision of rehabilitation professionals, these symptoms pass in a few days ad present the most difficult stage of overcoming Xanax addiction. It will take time for a person’s body and mind to recover from the abuse of the drug, and any recovery effort necessitates a course of therapeutic treatment. With the proper treatment, abuse and addiction of Xanax can be overcome.

Getting Help
If you or a loved one is suffering from chronic Xanax abuse and addiction, Pathways offers a residential treatment facility located in Sarasota, Florida. At Pathways, the recovery process begins with qualified and professional treatment practices meant to free lives held captive by the disease of addiction. For more information, please contact the professionals of Pathways Florida here.

The Pains from Percocet Abuse

Percocet is a pain medication that contains both oxycodone and acetaminophen, the same active ingredient in Tylenol. Because of the oxycodone component, long-term use of the drug may lead to the development of a tolerance to the medication. When an individual develops a tolerance to a prescription drug, they require more medication to feel its affects. You can see how this cycle of increasing the medication can easily lead to a dependence and full-fledged addiction.

Those who abuse Percocet abuse may exhibit confusion, sleepiness, light-headedness, slow breathing, constipation, sweating, headaches, vomiting or dry mouth. People who are dependent on Percocet, or any of the prescription drugs, will often seek prescriptions from several doctors (known as doctor shopping) and those who are very desperate for the drugs will look to street sources.

Unfortunately, prescription abuse happens all too often. If you have a friend or family member that you suspect is abusing a prescription medication such as Percocet, verify their prescription against the number of pills in the bottle to see if they are consuming more than the recommended dosage. If so, you may want to encourage them to seek treatment. Often, for people who are addicted to Percocet, detox alone is not enough. Residential treatment, such as what is available at Pathways to Recovery, is recommended.

Things to Consider When Seeking Treatment

You have a friend or family member who is abusing drugs or alcohol. You know you want to get help for them, but you aren’t sure what the first step should be. If you’ve found this article, you are doing what most people do – start an internet search. Of course, this can raise more questions than answers. We hope to simplify your process.

The National Institute on Drug Abuse, or NIDA, has released a list of five items you should consider when looking for treatment. Pathways meets all of their suggested requirements.

1 – Does the program use treatments backed by scientific evidence?
Yes! Pathways uses several evidence-based treatment methods for substance abuse treatment. These primarily include Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Moral Reconation Therapy and Motivational Enhancement Therapy. To learn more about each of these treatment methods, please visit our addiction information.

2 – Does the program tailor treatment to the needs of each patient?
Yes! Upon arriving at Pathways, each client sits with their primary counselor and completes a full assessment that is used to develop a treatment plan. This plan is tailored to specifically meet the needs of each client.

3 – Does the program adapt treatment as the patient’s needs change?
Absolutely! Weekly one-on-one counseling sessions between client and primary counselor give the opportunity to adjust the treatment plan, revise goals, as well as treat issues that may not have been revealed during the assessment.

4 – Is the duration of treatment sufficient?
While Pathways has traditionally been a 28-day treatment program, the ability to extend the program for an additional 30, 60, or 90 days provides opportunity to address additional issues or concerns that a client may have. Many Pathways clients spent years actively using and sometimes these behaviors cannot be changed in just 28 days.

5 – How does the 12-Step or similar recovery programs fit into drug addiction treatment?
Pathways incorporates the 12-Step philosophies into the treatment plan. Clients are required to attend meeting either off-site or on-campus.

For more information on how Pathways can help, please visit our website.

5 Common Symptoms of Heroin, Meth & OxyContin Abuse

Identifying the common signs and symptoms of addiction is the first step in getting help for yourself or a loved one. Symptoms of abuse are often present in three different forms – physical symptoms of use, mental and physical symptoms of withdrawal and outward symptoms of abuse.

Although OxyContin is a prescription painkiller used to treat chronic pain, many individuals become addicted to it due to its extended-release and ability to produce feelings of pleasure, similar to heroin and methamphetamines (meth). While the three drugs are made from different substances, the signs and symptoms of use, abuse and withdrawal are similar.

Physical Signs of Abuse
Physical signs of OxyContin, heroin and meth use are generally immediately visible or become apparent over time due to extended use.

-Shortness of breath and sweating- users often feel a shortness of breath or heavy breathing combined with an increase in perspiration.
-Hyper-alertness and sleeplessness- causes increased energy and feelings of a rush or euphoria, despite the lack of sleep.
-Decreased appetite and weight loss- uninterested in food and does not feel hungry. Weight loss is often rapid and more noticeable with extended use.
-Skin picking and crawling- obsessive skin picking, which causes sores similar to pimples and feeling as if something is constantly crawling under the skin.
-Nervousness and agitation- increased nervousness, paranoia, hallucinations or delusions, agitation or aggressiveness.

Withdrawal Symptoms
Symptoms of withdrawal are often similar to those experienced during use, however, they may be more intense and include other symptoms as well.

-Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea
-Increased anxiety and panic attacks
-Bone and muscle pain or weakness
-Hot and cold flashes with sweating
-Increased insomnia
-Behavioral Signs of Addiction

In addition to the physical symptoms, many outward behavioral signs are also evident, although they are not limited to OxyContin, heroin and meth addiction and may be present with any addiction.

Withdrawal from family, friends, school, work and other activities. In addition to a lack of interest in people and social activities, there is often a lack of interest in keeping up personal appearance and hygiene.
Deceitful, secretive and manipulative behavior. Lying and dishonesty, excuses to justify behavior, disappears, manipulates others to help them or to give them money.
Stealing, shoplifting and missing household items. Stealing money from friends or family members, shoplifting food or valuable items to sell, household valuables disappear.
Avoiding eye contact and increased hostility. Refuses to make eye contact during conversations, increased hostility towards family and friends, blames others for their behavior and actions.
Loss of personal items or property. Unable to pay bills, utilities shut off, inability to keep a job, loses vehicle, evicted from home.

Signs of an overdose include respiratory depression, seizures or tremors, loss of consciousness, vision impairments, high body temperature or fever, blue fingernails and lips, high blood pressure and sudden rapid heart rate. If you suspect a possible overdose, do not hesitate to seek emergency medical treatment immediately.

Contact Pathways for more information on identifying and recognizing the signs of addiction or to learn more about our program. You can also follow us on Facebook for ideas and tips on helping family members, Substance abuse and alcohol addiction information and additional resources.

An Insider’s Look: What to Expect at a Rehab Treatment Center

Finding treatment for drug abuse can be very difficult, especially for someone new to the idea. It can be helpful to have some ideas of what to expect, whether it’s a family member seeking help for an addict or an addict looking for recovery himself, as well as what he/she might experience.

Rehab and recovery has its hardships but there are also many benefits and things to be excited about in making the decision to get clean and sober. Expectations when entering a rehabilitation facility or assisting a friend or relative in doing so depend a lot on each individual’s situation and personal experience with drugs, and it’s extremely important to first consider the many steps to take before arriving at the facility.

To start, the client checking in will only need to bring about a week’s worth of clothing. It is advantageous to keep in mind that Pathways treatment facility is in Florida, a very warm climate. However, air conditioning is brisk within the facility, so a sweater or jacket will come in handy.

At the same time, there is a vast list of items not allowed within the facility. Knowing the requirements in advance negates additional frustration upon arrival. Some examples of things the client can bring to the rehab center include:

  • Up to three pairs of shoes
  • Medications in RX bottles (to be assessed upon arrival)
  • Alarm clock
  • Personal blanket and pillow

The list of prohibited items is much more extensive. For example, new arrivals may not bring:

  • Cell phones
  • Radios
  • MP3 players
  • Outside food or drink
  • Clothing with drug or alcohol references
  • Clothing with inappropriate insignia

For a complete list of items Pathways does not allow clients to carry with them, it is important to consult with a professional at the facility or view the Pathways website.

Arrival and Check-In
After the personal property is reviewed and taken care of, new arrivals will be introduced to a highly trained counselor who will guide him or her in developing a successful treatment plan according to their individual needs. The assessment will cover chemical dependency treatment as well as mental health and complete recovery physically and emotionally.

Payment Information
Because the cost of addiction treatment and rehabilitation can often be prohibitive, Pathways offers clients and friends or families who are willing to assist and pay for the treatment several options to make the necessary payment. The cost of services is $9,600 per month for services. Pathways accepts payment from several different insurance companies, including but not limited to:

  • Aetna
  • Blue Cross/Blue Shield
  • Humana
  • United Health Care
  • And many more.

Clients, or their representative friend or family member, should assess the available insurance to see if coverage for inpatient treatment is provided. Should that not be available or not cover the entire cost, financing is also available through American Healthcare Lending, which provides:

  • Simple interest loans
  • Reasonable interest rates
  • Terms up to 84 months
  • No down payment or collateral
  • As well as many other benefits.

The Program
At Pathways, clients in treatment will receive services that prepare him or her to manage their addiction. Recovery skills, relapse prevention training, and counseling are provided by a team trained in the latest science-based techniques that have proven successful. The addiction treatment revolves around an intensive 28-day program and also offers options for extended care as needed, as well as detox.

Clients should expect to share a room containing a closet and bathroom, with linens provided. The goal is to assure clients can confidently transfer to a sober house, halfway house, or other loving, supervised facility for continued care.

Making the decision to enter treatment can be a difficult step for anyone with a substance abuse disorder. Our compassionate Pathways counseling staff will work with you to provide an individualized treatment program. To learn more or set up an appointment for an assessment, please call 855-349-5988.

What All Parents Should Know About Substance Abuse in Teenagers

No family wants to deal with substance abuse. However, the reality is that substance is one of the biggest challenges our society faces. For parents, their worst nightmare can come to fruition when learning their teenager is using and dependent on drugs.

There is hope and light at the end of the tunnel. Many individuals learn a life of recovery and turn their lives into positive examples. In part, this success is due to the profound support by family, peers, and a network of professionals who are committed to providing rehabilitative services.
Substance abuse does not have to lead to a point of no return. The first step that parents can make to ensure the safety and well-being of their children is to understand facts surrounding the disease.

Get the Facts:

  • Adolescents under the age of 18 are at an unpredictable and sometimes awkward time in their life. Natural feelings of insecurity, self-doubt and frustration, coupled with raging hormones, can make them very impressionable and more susceptible to falling prey to vices. Juveniles are also at greater risk of becoming addicts than adults because their brains are not fully developed.
  • The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP)states that teens with family history of substance abuse have higher chances of developing serious habits with drug and alcohol. It is also more likely for those with low self-esteem or depression to become victims. The average age most individuals first consume alcohol is 12, and experimentation with marijuana typically begins at age 14.
  • Teens experiment or become dependent on a wide range of drugs including alcohol, prescribed medication, over-the-counter medications, depressants, stimulants, heroin and designer drugs.
  • Common telltale signs of substance abuse among teens is glazed eyes, appetite loss, erratic behavior, poor judgment, fatigue, indifference towards school and social activities, physical health problems and a change in friends.
  • According to, juveniles who use drugs are more likely to engage in unprotected sex, experience teen pregnancy, suffer from life-threatening diseases and attempt suicide. Substance abuse also increases high school drop-out rates and enduring impoverished conditions, such as homelessness, because of voluntary or involuntary disassociation from family and friends.
  • Drug and alcohol treatment is an invaluable experience for those ready to seek help. Individuals who are pushed by peers and family members are not as likely to remain clean after rehabilitation.
  • The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)indicates that substance abuse treatment curbs addiction by getting to the root of the problem so individuals can have a better quality of life. However, the selection process can be challenging because there are not “one size fits all” solutions. The extent of drug and alcohol use, as well as the history behind it, differs from person to person. In addition, resources vary by center and the quality of each individual’s interaction with care providers is never the same.

If you know or suspect that your teenager has an abuse problem, contact Pathways for help.

3 Things to Know About Insurance for Substance Abuse Rehab Centers

Once an individual accepts that they need help, the next step will be to decide on treatment. Finding the right rehab facility can make recovery go smoother. Paying for treatment is a big factor in deciding on a facility and insurance often covers substance abuse treatment.

  1. Substance Abuse Treatment is an Essential Health Benefit
    According to gov, health insurance plans must cover certain essential health benefits. Among those benefits are mental health and substance abuse services.
  2. A Policy May Not Cover All Rehab Facilities
    Prior to seeking treatment, contact the insurance provider to determine the type of coverage provided by the policy. Knowing and understanding what coverage is available can make choosing a treatment facility easier. A policy may not cover certain forms of treatment, such as residential treatment.
  3. Insurance May Cover Extended Recovery Services
    Some services are available to help ensure the success of each client. Extended services include relapse prevention counseling, managing anger, anxiety and stress.

The inability to pay out of pocket does not have to be a barrier for anyone seeking treatment. It is important to investigate the various insurance options and payment plans when deciding to enter treatment. Contact Pathways to Recovery to determine the best payment option for you.